Book Source: Digital Library of India Item durchcomppumalchi.cf: Huxley durchcomppumalchi.cfioned. Book Source: Digital Library of India Item durchcomppumalchi.cf: Huxley, durchcomppumalchi.cfioned. Point Counter Point by Aldous Huxley; 37 editions; First published in ; Subjects: In library, Information services, Intellectual life, Accessible.
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Project Gutenberg offers free ebooks for site, iPad, Nook, Android, and iPhone. eBooks-Library publishes Aldous Huxley and other eBooks from all genres of In , Point Counter Point was published, with Lawrence being one of the main ePub - 'Antic Hay' (EAHX) · Find a printed copy of Antic Hay by Aldous . PDF site EPub, Free, UToronto. Herrick . Huxley, Aldous, , Collected Works]: Point Counter Point: A Novel, Lond, Graphic, Free, UMichigan.
We are perhaps now ready again for Huxley and writers like him. On the other hand, those who have called Huxley a secular saint when coined by Gladstone to describe John Stuart Mill, that epithet was intended to carry an ambivalent charge run the risk of inviting a sceptical reaction. Yet even the unillusioned Cyril Connolly, interviewing Huxley for Picture Post in , was forced to conclude that the man he had met at Claridges during the West End run of one of his plays was qualitatively different from the general run of contemporary authors: If one looks at his face one gets first an impression of immense intelligence, but this is not unusual among artists.
What is much more remarkable and almost peculiar to him is the radiance of serenity and loving-kindness on his features; one no longer feels 'what a clever man' but 'what a good man,' a man at peace with himself and plunged as well - indeed, fully engaged - in the eternal conflict between good and evil, awareness and stupidity. He was not an ideologist, a writer of manifestos, a practical politician. But he wanted to change minds - or to release their potential.
His intelligence roamed freely and was uninterested in boundaries. In California, he gave lunch to L. Ron Hubbard, founder of the batty science of dianetics - for the simple reason that he wanted to find out what he had to say - and when a friend wrote about flying saucers he confessed that he had 'no settled opinion so far' about whether or not they existed.
But, in addition to the intellect and the moral vision, there was the physical man. Huxley was immensely tall - six feet four-and-a half inches - and the near-blindness that afflicted him for much of his life sometimes gave him an air of strangeness, perhaps intimidating for those who met him for the first time.
For Christopher Isherwood who knew him in his southern California years he was 'too tall.
I felt an enormous zoological separation from him. There is a very, very great chasm between the tall and the short. It was on the lawn at Garsington, while scanning the manuscripts of Gerald Manley Hopkins which Robert Bridges had just handed to her, that she looked up at 'that gigantic grasshopper Aldous folded up in a chair close by'. A few years later she met him at a concert 'more of a windmill and a scarecrow, more highbrow, purblind and pallid and spavined than ever'.
Sybille Bedford noticed at her first meeting with him: 'the apartness, the vulnerability, the curious young bird's unprotectedness that has caught so many women'.
His faulty sight even intensified Aldous's majesty, for he appeared to be looking at things above and beyond what other people saw.
Listening to a recording of himself, pressed on vinyl in the summer of , when he had lived in Southern California for more than a decade, Huxley reflected: Language is perpetually changing; the cultivated English I listened to as a child is not the same as the cultivated English spoken by young men and women today.
But within the general flux there are islands of linguistic conservatism; and when I listen to myself objectively, from the outside, I perceive that I am one of those islands. I can answer with a considerable degree of confidence that they spoke almost exactly as I do.
Another theme is illustrated by Burlap, the rapacious editor for whom Walter works. He succeeds in seducing Beatrice, an ageing virgin who works for him.
The novel ends with Beatrice and Burlap having a bath together while a secretary whom Burlap has dismissed commits suicide. Moral cowardice, unhealthy spirituality, sensualism, cold intellectualism, bitterness and discontent, cynicism, action of its own sake or for the sake of a false ideal, lack of sensibility, hypocrisy, all these evils are illustrated and opposed to the warm humaneness of Mark and Mary Rampion, who are portraits of D.
Lawrence and his wife. The Rampions do not share in the action; they are brought in whenever Huxley wants to contrast their healthy conception of life with the perversity or weakness of the other characters. For this reason Rampion gives the impression of not being integrated in the orchestra, and the sense of harmony which he was no doubt intended to create is absent from the novel.
This tameness is unwholesome because instincts and spontaneous living are being restrained.
When man tries to be an angel or a devil, the only possible result is death, which is also the outcome of industrialism, the monster born from the combined efforts of science and business.
Its effects are felt everywhere, even in education, which inspires children with a love for machinery, and in art, which expresses the spirit of industrialism by sterilizing life out of things.
Industrialism is supported by political parties which advocate americanization even in Russia: on both sides, machinery takes people to hell, only in Russia the rich men have been replaced by government officials.
The industrial civilization is the fruit of an excessive intellectualism which serves the new gods instead of serving man and provokes inward decay, infantilism, degeneration and all sorts of madness and primitive reversion.
For Rampion, the evil is rooted in the individual so that it is the individual psychological outlook which must be reformed. The only absolutely evil act that a man can perform is an act against life, against his own integrity.
A man, mind you. Not an angel or a devil. He finds all human beings hateful and boring, and boasts of depraving young girls whom he makes desperate by revealing to them the full horror of their corruption. All these people….
After killing Webley in order to prove the existence of God, he discovers that his crime is more stupid than horrible and that, whatever he does, he remains on the dust-heap. When people hate life, their only alternative is promiscuity or asceticism, two forms of death. Like Rampion, Philip thinks that an excessive development of the mental functions leads to the atrophy of the other features of the human personality.
Emotionally, he remains an alien, using his wife as a go-between in his relations with the outside world. If only for the sake of his work, he rather wishes that he could really feel those emotions which he understands so thoroughly, or be one of those personalities he so readily assumes, but at heart he prefers to remain emotionally free even if this means being confined to his own mind; after all he is only safe in the world of ideas, and there at least he is certain of his superiority.
Elinor, the most normal and human character in the novel, suffers from his attitude; he cannot give her the human warmth she craves for. The latter realizes that his relationship with his wife has come to a crisis but all he does is use it as a basis for the plot of a novel.
To such moulds as his spirit might from time to time occupy, to such hard and burning obstacles as it might flow round, emerge, and, itself cold, penetrate to the fiery heart of, no permanent loyalty was owing.
The moulds were emptied as easily as they had been filled, the obstacles were passed by. But the essential liquidness that flowed where it would, the cool indifferent flux of intellectual curiosity — that persisted and to that his loyalty was due. If there was any single way of life he could lastingly believe in, it was that mixture of pyrrhonism and stoicism which had struck him, an inquiring schoolboy among the philosophers, as the height of human wisdom and into whose mould of sceptical indifference he had poured his unimpassioned adolescence, pp.
What I want to do is to look with all those eyes at once. Through the development of various themes, the confrontation of characters and the clash of ideas, he explores various aspects of life. This naturally emphasizes the heterogeneous character of contemporary society; it also allows the author to expose a number of aberrations which estrange men from their real nature as well as the diversity of escapes they devise. Actually, Huxley denounces the same evils as in his previous novels, with the difference that eccentricity is no longer farcical but life-destroying and a frequent source of tragedy.
He widens the scope of his criticism by examining the philosophic tendencies of the Twenties in their vulgarized and often distorted expressions and by giving examples of the class-hatred and the political squabbles between fascists and communists in England at the time. Similarly, Webley, who had appealed to force and violence, meets with a violent death. This determinism leaves little room for the autonomous development of characters; the latter behave as their creators expect them to.
He is sometimes amused, though mostly horrified, at their queer behaviour, but he assumes that they cannot be saved from themselves because he has no faith in human beings nor apparently in life. Indeed, it is his lack of any deep-set conviction that makes all truth relative in his eyes and makes it possible for him to look at life from multiple angles. He adheres to the theory of inconsistency and advocates it, but he cannot be inconsistent himself, and instead of asserting passionately like Rampion that it is natural for man to be inconsistent, he demonstrates it rationally.
It shows a maturity unprecedented in his fiction and a deep insight into the human mind and soul. He makes a serious endeavour to present life as a whole and to offer integral living as a way of redeeming man from the evils of modern life.
Unfortunately, Rampion merely preaches his message, he is not shown living it. It is a piece of cynicism, however, which the soul must accept, whether it likes it or not. The orchestra presented by Huxley merely interprets fragments of isolated and unsatisfactory lives. His evocation of the social chaos shows that he still looks at humanity with the same horror and fear.
This broader vision accounts for his attempt to convey a more complete picture of man in Point Counter Point and Eyeless in Gaza though this picture is still limited.
It is a picture of what our world might become if we allow applied science to condition our life entirely and to destroy our individuality. From his earliest work Huxley showed interest in the form of government and social structure that were most likely to offer man the greatest possibilities of fulfilment. In Proper Studies he argues for the unique-ness of each individual, the inequality in reason and intelligence which differentiates men and should be taken into account when determining the place they are to occupy in society.
But it does not allow the individual to develop in harmony with his nature. It is similar to Mr. Poets, however, are not yet destroyed in the lethal chamber, they are merely sent to a distant island. Systematically, from earliest infancy, its members will be assured that there is no happiness to be found except in work and obedience; they will be made to believe that they are happy, that they are tremendously important beings, and that everything they do is noble and significant.
For the lower species the earth will be restored to the centre of the universe and man to pre-eminence on earth.
Oh, I envy the lot of the commonalty in the Rational State! Working their eight hours a day, obeying their betters, convinced of their own grandeur and significance and immortality, they will be marvellously happy, happier than any race of men has ever been. They will go through life in a rosy state of intoxication, from which they will never awake. The Men of Faith will play the cup-bearers at this lifelong bacchanal, filling and ever filling again with the warm liquor that the Intelligences, in sad and sober privacy behind the scenes, will brew for the intoxication of their subjects.
It is not the political dictatorship dreaded by most people but the equally inhuman society created by an unconditional demand for comfort and security. The worst threat that now hangs over Western civilization is that the Utopia so long dreamed of by philosophers and scientists should come true.
For progress, the fruit of unlimited scientific research, is a powerful and dangerous instrument in the hands of the world controllers. It gives them the means of organizing the state and the lives of men along very strict pre-established lines. The tragic dilemma of modern man is at last solved for him by being made irrelevant: he need no longer reconcile body and mind; his main functions are skilfully channelled and mechanized or simply eradicated.
Another of Mr. Ironically, it is in this overorganized world that men achieve integration though at the cost of their individual freedom. Babies are decanted as socialized human beings and predestined to becoming standard men and women; they are classified according to the part they are expected to play in society.
The main principle of education is the suppression of natural instincts through conditioning. In order to avoid neurosis women are given pregnancy substitutes; violent passion surrogates are compulsory, they are the psychological equivalents of fear and rage.
Even the religious instinct finds an outlet in the cult of Our Ford which allows people to satisfy both their need for religious faith and for collective hysteria.
Belief in God has, of course, been eradicated. People believe in God when they have been so conditioned, or when they are unhappy. But there is no need for an absolute when the social order is immovable and its stability is its own justification.
If anything should go wrong in this well-organized world, there is always soma to help one to get away from reality. Thus man is completely dehumanized since even thought is automatized by the state. People behave in an undifferentiated insensitive way on the individual plane, and they are taught to abhor nobility and heroism, which are symptomatic of political inefficiency. Their spiritual and emotional deathliness entails the complete disappearance of creative activity.
There is nothing to write about since, by suppressing pain and conflict, the state has also quenched the incentive to self-expression and to the interpretation of experience in terms of art. All the treasures piled up in centuries of intense living and expression of individual genius have become irrelevant.
The eradication of love, understanding and compassion, the replacement of self-denial by self-indulgence, the extinction of ideals, the condemnation of solitude and contemplation, and the destruction of the mystery of life and death have rendered the creation ot beauty impossible and undesirable.
Truth and beauty have given place to comfort and happiness.
People are happy because they get what they want, and they never want what they cannot get. All conditioning aims at making people satisfied with their inevitable social destiny. Because of a mistake in their conditioning Bernard Marx and Helmholtz Watson are not perfectly regimented.
Bernard is an intelligent Alpha plus trained in psychology. Unlike the people of his caste, he likes to be alone and to do things in private. He feels separate and isolated and often has the impression that he is an outsider. He resents being a mere cell in the social body. He would like to feel strongly and to know what passion is. Bernard and Helmholtz share the knowledge that they are individuals and long to assert themselves as such, Bernard in personal relations, Helmholtz as a creative writer.
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It seeks to explain the endlessly diverse phenomena of nature by ignoring the uniqueness of particular events, concentrating on what they have in common and finally abstracting some kind of "law," in terms of which they make sense and can be effectively dealt with.
Singing Commercials are a recent invention; but the Singing Theological and the Singing Devotional -- the hymn and the psalm -- are as old as religion itself. The orchestra presented by Huxley merely interprets fragments of isolated and unsatisfactory lives. Industrialism is supported by political parties which advocate americanization even in Russia: on both sides, machinery takes people to hell, only in Russia the rich men have been replaced by government officials.
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